Students will extend their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.
CC9.1a Create various visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore identity (e.g., The Search for Self), social responsibility (e.g., Our Shared Narratives), and efficacy (e.g., Doing the Right Thing).
CC9.1b Create various visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore identity (e.g., Exploring Loyalty, Love, and Relationships), social responsibility (e.g., Equal Opportunity), and efficacy (e.g., Surviving and Conquering).
a Create and deliver a variety of personal, literary, and informational communications, including poems, stories, personal essays, and oral, visual, written, and multimedia presentations (e.g., written explanations, summaries, arguments, letters, biographies) that address identity, social responsibility, and efficacy.
b Create and present speeches, writing, and other representations that feature the following qualities:
Focuses on main ideas and information for audience and purpose; provides relevant details, examples, and explanations; is accurate, complete, and uses own words; shows some individuality or originality in literary texts; contains ideas and images that create an impact.
Introduces the topic and purpose; provide context; sticks to the topic; easy to follow with related ideas grouped together (sequence is logical); uses a variety of connecting words; creates a logical ending; includes appropriate, and required text features (e.g., titles, headings, diagrams, illustrations) is correctly constructed; uses paragraphs that have main ideas and supporting details.
Uses clear purpose and language; shows a good sense of audience; contains description and variety in diction; contains a variety of sentence lengths and varied sentence beginnings; demonstrates the use of several different conjunctions; formulates simple, compound, and complex sentences (avoiding run-ons and fragments); applies the conventions of oral and written language, including correct spelling, correct punctuation (including use of colon, dash, and hyphen), syntactically complete and correct sentences (avoiding run-ons and fragments), uses legible cursive handwriting and clear representations which are visually accurate, legible, and neatly presented.
m Design a website to communicate and share information with m. an audience.
n Evaluate own research process.
o Use the language of inquiry (e.g. "I wonder if…", "What inquiry question(s) would focus my task?", "What materials and equipment could I use?", "Can I formulate alternative answers, solutions, conclusions, or decisions related to my inquiry questions?").
CC9.3.a and CC9.3b Select and use appropriate strategies to communicate meaning before (e.g., considering and valuing own observations, experiences, ideas, and opinions as sources for ideas), during (e.g., shaping and reshaping drafts with audience and purpose in mind), and after (e.g., ensuring that all parts support the main idea or thesis) speaking, writing, and other representing activities.
a Demonstrate an understanding of the creating process by planning, creating drafts, revising, and creating a final version.
b Progress through stages/phases of the creating process (i.e., before [pre-], during [drafting], and after [revising] presenting) as needed.
c Analyze, evaluate, and apply the strategies used before, during, and after speaking, writing, and other forms of representing including:
consider prompt or find a topic and activate prior knowledge (e.g., consider the key components of communication including purpose, role, audience, format, and topic; consider timelines and deadlines)
consider purpose and audience (e.g., consider if the communication is to entertain, explain, surprise, persuade, describe, or narrate; consider how to engage intended audience and what response is wanted from them)
consider and generate specific ideas and information that might be included (e.g., consider and value own observations, experiences, ideas, and opinions as sources for ideas; use free writing, clustering, or another selecting activity to explore and find a focus)
create draft(s) and experiment with possible product(s) (e.g., develop a first draft that introduces the topic and gives the focus statement, covers each part of the topic, uses details explaining the topic, and ends in a way that gives the viewer, listener, reader a final thought; shape and reshape draft with audience and purpose in mind)
revise for content and meaning (adding, deleting, substituting, and rethinking) (e.g., cut information that does not support focus; add information if additional points need to be made; refine so ideas are interesting, colourful, and understood)
revise for organization (e.g., consider what parts are working together well; review method of development; consider if the opening and closing are appropriate; consider if a written composition reads smoothly and clearly)
confer with peers, teacher, or others (e.g., provide meaningful feedback based on specific observations; keep comments positive and constructive)
polish, practise, and decide how work will be shared and published (e.g., review purpose and consider if the communication succeeds)
share final product, reflect, consider feedback, and celebrate learning (e.g., prepare a portfolio; submit a manuscript).
CC9.4a and CC9.4b Use pragmatic (e.g., inclusive language that supports people across cultures, genders, ages, and abilities), textual (e.g., strong leads, coherent body, and effective endings), syntactic (e.g., subordination to show more precisely the relationships between ideas), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., both the denotative and connotative meaning of words), graphophonic (e.g., knowledge of spelling patterns and rules to identify, analyze, and correct spelling errors), and other cues (e.g., combine print and visuals to enhance presentations) to construct and to communicate meaning.
a Understand and apply the conventions of oral and written language and the conventions of visual and multimedia texts.
b Use and apply language cues and conventions to communicate meaning including:
Demonstrate confidence in using language in a variety of formal and informal contexts, both inside and outside the classroom; use inclusive language that supports and demonstrates respect for people across cultures, genders, ages, and abilities; use appropriate language to participate in public events, occasions, or traditions; adjust use of language to suit audiences and purposes; use appropriate register of language (i.e., formal, informal, colloquial); avoid jargon, slang, and clichés; use emotional appeal or persuasive language (e.g., testimonials, emotional appeals, bandwagon effects); use standard Canadian English that follows accepted rules of usage; avoid the personal "I/you" in formal communication; use appropriate register, role, tone, and usage; address communication to a specific audience; ensure voice/tone is appropriate to audience and text type.
Use structures and features of texts including form/genre, artistic devices (e.g., personification, figurative language including similes and metaphors, exaggeration, symbolism), elements (e.g., point of view, conflict, theme, supporting arguments) and text features (e.g., credits, headings, diagrams, columns, sidebar, pull-quotes); use a range of standard forms for texts including paragraphs and multi-paragraph compositions; use appropriate point of view (including third person) for purpose; use organizational patterns within texts (chronological, enumerative, procedural, problem/solution, cause/effect, comparison/contrast); craft strong leads, coherent bodies, and effective conclusions; maintain focus and ensure unity and coherence in text from beginning to end; use effective transition words; include covering page and list of references; use language and techniques to create a dominant impression, mood, tone, and style.
Ensure that sentences are complete, interesting, and on topic; use clear sentence structures that contain a verb and its subject (average spoken sentence length – 10.5 words; average length of sentences in freewriting – 10.2; in rewriting – 9.8); combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for variety, interest, and effect; use complete sentences with appropriate subordination and modification; use subordination to show more precisely the relationship between ideas (e.g., because, although, when) and to avoid a string of compound sentences; make sentences more precise by reducing a main idea (clause) to a subordinate idea (clause); reduce, when appropriate, a subordinate clause to a phrase or single word; recognize that effective co-ordination, subordination, and apposition of ideas make sentences clear and varied; recognize and use parallel structure or balanced sentences for parallel ideas; use active versus passive verbs; vary sentence beginnings; ensure agreement of subjects, verbs, and pronouns; use correct pronouns acting as subjects or objects (e.g., "Him and his brother…"); correctly place qualifiers; use effective capitalization and punctuation including periods, commas, semicolons, quotation marks, colons, dashes, and hyphens; punctuate correctly titles of various media.
Use words that are appropriate for audience, purpose, and context and capture a particular aspect of intended meaning; use specific words and synonyms for variety; use common homonyms (e.g., through/threw) and often confused words (e.g., affect/effect) correctly; avoid overused and misused words (e.g., irregardless, anyways, among/between); consider both the denotative and connotative meaning of words; avoid wordiness, mixed metaphors, or "fancy" words; use reference tools including dictionaries, thesauri, and handbooks to determine meaning of words; check spelling, and verify usage; recognize and use words figuratively and for imagery; spell most words correctly using Canadian spelling; use a variety of strategies and resources to learn the correct spelling of words; use knowledge of spelling generalizations; demonstrate and use new vocabulary appropriately.
Enunciate clearly and carefully, and correctly pronounce words with proper emphasis; use knowledge of a range of spelling patterns, including sound-symbol relationships and rules, to help identify, analyze, and correct spelling errors.
Use volume and presentation techniques appropriate to audience and purpose; use appropriate non-verbal cues (including gestures, physical movements, facial expressions, eye contact, and body language), sound effects, visuals, and multimedia aids to enhance presentation; combine print and visuals to enhance presentations; use printing (e.g., for labels on a map) and cursive writing (e.g., for writing a report) appropriate to purpose; write legibly with appropriate speed and control; arrange and balance words and visuals as well as fonts (typefaces/print) in order to send a coherent and clear message to specific audiences; ensure that graphics, sound, and technology enhance representations.
CC9.5a Create and present a variety of visual and multimedia presentations to best represent message for an intended audience and purpose.
CC9.5b Create and present a variety of visual and multimedia presentations including addressing various audiences for one proposal.
a Explore ideas and express understanding using various visual and other representational techniques (e.g., storyboarding, scripting, concept mapping).
b Analyze, organize, and convert information into different forms (e.g., charts, graphs, drawings, movement).
c Create multimedia presentations to communicate information using resources such as overhead projectors, computers, recorders, and other presentation software.
d Integrate a variety of media (e.g., sound effects, mime, graphics, physical movement, short video clip) into oral and written representations to enhance the message.
e Use visual aids, media, and other technology to support oral presentations.
f Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs.
g Experiment with representing in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar forms (e.g., video documentary on social issue, comic strip).
h Create, edit, and use sound files.
i Create, edit, and use video files.
j Adapt a print work to another medium (e.g., design a book jacket to sell the same novel to children, teens, or adults).
k Experiment with the use of technology in communicating for a range of purposes with a variety of audiences.
CC9.6a and CC9.6b Use oral language to interact purposefully, confidently, and appropriately in a variety of situations including participating in one-to-one, small group, and large group discussions (e.g., prompting and supporting others, solving problems, resolving conflicts, building consensus, articulating and explaining personal viewpoint, discussing preferences, speaking to extend current understanding, and celebrating special events and accomplishments).
CC9.7a and CC9.7b Use oral language intentionally to express a range of information and ideas in formal and informal situations including dramatic readings of poems, monologues, scenes from plays, and stories and presenting reasoned arguments of opposing viewpoints.
a Use talk to explore own and others' ideas and to express understanding.
b Read aloud short prose passages to support a point.
c Participate in dramatic speaking experiences such as role plays and dramatic readings.
d Give oral presentations to different audiences for various purposes, such as summaries, narratives, persuasive topics, inquiry projects, and impromptu and dramatic speeches.
e Demonstrate respect for the needs, rights, and feelings of others.
f Establish a controlling impression or coherent thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and maintain a consistent tone and focus through the presentation.
CC9.9a and CC9.9b Experiment with a variety of text forms (e.g., debates, meetings, presentations to unfamiliar audiences, poetry, précis, short script, advice column, video documentary, comic strip) and techniques (e.g., tone, persona, point of view, imagery, dialogue, figurative language).
a Prepare compositions (including essays), reports, presentations, and inquiry or research projects with adequate detail for audience understanding.
d Seek out teachers, peers, and others with specific strengths for writing conferences.
e Design and publish documents by using publishing software and graphics programs.
f Write clear and focused narrative, descriptive, expository, and persuasive essays (at least 1,500 words).
g Write response to texts to demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary texts and support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text, and demonstrate awareness of the author's use of language.
j Create narrative texts (e.g., personal narrative, short story) as follows:
locate scenes and incidents in specific places
describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of the scene and the specific actions, movements, and feelings of the characters (use interior monologue to depict characters' feelings)