Students will extend their abilities to speak, write, and use other forms of representation to explore and present thoughts, feelings, and experiences in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences.
CC8.1 Create various visual, oral, written, and multimedia (including digital) texts that explore identity (e.g., Telling One's Life Story), social responsibility (e.g., Examining the Influence of Popular Culture), and efficacy (e.g., Creating Turning Points).
a Create a variety of texts (i.e., oral presentations, written and other compositions) that represent experiences, ideas, and information about identity, social responsibility, and efficacy with clarity, correctness, and variety.
b Create speeches, writing, and other representations that feature the following qualities:
Focuses on main ideas and information; provides relevant details, examples, and explanations; is accurate, complete, and uses own words; shows some individuality or originality in literary texts; contains ideas and images that create an impact.
Introduces the topic and purpose; provides some context; sticks to the topic; is easy to follow with related ideas grouped together and sequenced logically; uses appropriate connecting words; creates a logical ending; includes appropriate and required text features (e.g., titles, headings, diagrams, illustrations), correctly constructed.
Uses clear purpose and language; shows a good sense of audience; contains description and variety in diction; contains a variety of sentence lengths and varied sentence beginnings; demonstrates the use of several different conjunctions; formulates complete, simple, compound, and complex sentences correctly (avoiding run-ons and fragments); applies the conventions of oral and written language, including correct spelling, correct punctuation (including use of colon, dash, and hyphen), uses legible cursive handwriting and clear representations which are visually accurate, legible, and neatly presented.
c Represent, articulate, and explain personal viewpoints clearly.
d Summarize main ideas discussed and conclusions drawn, encourage others to contribute, disagree courteously/sensitively, answer others' questions clearly and politely, and add to others' ideas.
e Participate in group inquiry related to the themes and issues being studied in English language arts.
CC8.2 Create and present a group inquiry project related to a topic, theme, or issue studied in English language arts.
a Determine personal knowledge of a topic to generate possible areas of inquiry or research.
b Formulate relevant questions on a topic to establish a purpose for gathering information.
c Contribute ideas, knowledge, and strategies to help identify group information needs and sources.
d Collaborate with others using technology to plan inquiry.
e Prepare and use a plan to access, gather, and record in own words relevant information.
f Gather information from a variety of sources (e.g., interviews, print texts, CD-ROMs, Internet) and integrate ideas in analysis.
g Organize information and ideas in order of priority according to topic and task requirements.
h Make notes in point form, summarizing major ideas and supporting details.
i Sort, organize, classify, and extend data using information technology tools.
j Adjust inquiry and research strategies to accommodate changing perspectives and availability of pertinent information.
k Document cited resources within presentations and composition.
l Use the language of inquiry (e.g., "What processes or procedures could we use?", "What criteria will we use to judge how effective the sources and processes are in addressing the topic?", "How can we prepare a presentation suitable for the purpose, audience, and situation that we identified?").
CC8.3 Select and use the appropriate strategies to communicate meaning before (e.g., plan, organize, and sequence ideas to fit purpose, point of view, and format), during (e.g., use and maintain appropriate point of view for audience and purpose), and after (e.g., revise final drafts and presentations to ensure that the format and patterns within that format contribute to the effectiveness of the composition) speaking, writing, and other representing activities.
a Demonstrate an understanding of the creating process by preparing (pre-writing), creating drafts, revising, and creating a final copy or product.
b Progress through stages/phases of the creating process (i.e., before [pre-], during [drafting], and after [revising] presenting) as needed.
c Use several strategies before, during, and after representing, speaking, and writing including:
consider prompt or find a topic and activate prior knowledge (e.g., consider the variables in the prompt or assignment including purpose, role, audience, topic, and focus)
consider purpose and audience (e.g., ask questions to analyze purpose and audience)
consider and generate specific ideas and information that might be included (e.g., formulate pertinent questions to explore and develop the topic)
consider and choose/adapt a possible form (e.g., consider the best pattern to present ideas including cause and effect, problem/solution, opinion/reason, fact/proof, sharing experience pattern)
collect and focus ideas and information (e.g., collect details about the topic and plan how to use them; identify gaps in ideas and information)
plan and organize ideas for drafting (mapping and authoring) (e.g., create a pre-writing plan as a guide; consider alternative ways to organize and present ideas)
consider qualities of effective communication and the language to use (e.g., consider the best register and point of view to use).
revise for content and meaning (adding, deleting, substituting, and rethinking) (e.g., consider the assumptions and values presented)
revise for organization (e.g., check that the text patterns and features are appropriate to the form of representation; review for consistent point of view; include a beginning that attracts the viewer, listener, or reader, a middle part that supports the focus, and a closing that connects everything)
confer with peers, teacher, or others (e.g., use pre-determined and/or student-developed criteria for revision; revise with peers' and others' responses in mind)
polish, practise, and decide how work will be shared and published (e.g., enhance for clarity, correctness, variety, and legibility; use blue or black ink and write neatly; check margins; use easy-to-read fonts)
share final product, reflect, consider feedback, and celebrate learning (e.g., use a reflection sheet to think about the product, delivery, and planning for future communications).
CC8.4 Use pragmatic (e.g., use appropriate language register), textual (e.g., use artistic devices such as figurative language), syntactical (e.g., combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for variety, interest, and effect), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., use words to capture a particular aspect of meaning), graphophonic (e.g., correctly pronounce words with proper emphasis), and other cues (e.g, arrange and balance words and visuals as well as fonts) to construct and to communicate meaning.
a Apply consistently the conventions of oral and written language and the conventions of visual and multimedia texts.
b Use and apply language cues and conventions to communicate meaning including:
Use appropriate language to participate in public events, occasions, or traditions; explain function and purpose of texts including informing, persuading, narrating, and describing; use appropriate language register (i.e., for audience and purpose); use language that demonstrates respect for others (including people of different ages, abilities, genders, cultures); use standard Canadian English that follows accepted rules of usage; avoid the personal "I/you" in formal communication; use appropriate register, role, tone, and usage; ensure voice/tone is appropriate to audience and text type.
Use structures and features of texts to communicate understanding including form/genre, artistic devices (e.g., personification, figurative language including similes and metaphors, exaggeration, symbolism), elements (e.g., point of view, conflict, theme, supporting arguments), and text features (e.g., credits, headings, diagrams, columns, sidebars, pull-quotes); use a range of standard forms for texts including paragraphs and multi-paragraph compositions; use appropriate point of view (including third person) for purpose; use common organizational patterns within texts (e.g., chronological, enumerative, problem/solution, cause/effect, comparison/contrast); craft strong leads and effective conclusions; maintain focus and ensure unity and coherence in text from beginning to end; use transition words; include covering page and list of references.
Ensure that sentences are complete, interesting, and on topic; use clear sentence structures that contain a verb and its subject (average spoken sentence length – 10.5 words; average length of sentences in freewriting – 10.2; in rewriting – 9.8); combine sentences to form compound and complex sentences for variety, interest, and effect; use complete sentences with appropriate subordination and modification; use subordination to show more precisely the relationship between ideas (e.g., because, although, when) and to avoid a string of compound sentences; make sentences more precise by reducing a main idea (clause) to a subordinate idea (clause); reduce, when appropriate, subordinate clause to a phrase or single word; vary sentence beginnings; ensure agreement of subject, verbs, and pronouns and use correct forms including pronouns acting as subjects and objects (e.g., "Him and his brother …"); correctly place qualifiers; employ effective capitalization and punctuation including periods, commas, semicolons, quotation marks, colons, dashes, and hyphens.
Use words that are appropriate for audience, purpose, and context and capture a particular aspect of intended meaning; use specific words and synonyms for variety; use common homonyms (e.g., whose/who's) and often confused words (e.g., lend/borrow) correctly; use reference tools including dictionaries, thesauri, and handbooks to determine meaning of words, to check spelling, and to verify usage; recognize and use words figuratively and for imagery; spell most words correctly using Canadian spelling; use a variety of strategies and resources to learn the correct spelling of words; use knowledge of spelling generalizations.
Enunciate clearly and carefully, and correctly pronounce words with proper emphasis; use knowledge of a range of spelling patterns, including sound-symbol relationships and rules, to help identify, analyze, and correct spelling errors.
Use volume and presentation techniques appropriate to audience and purpose; use appropriate non-verbal cues (including gestures, physical movements, facial expressions, and body language), sound effects, visuals, and multimedia aids to enhance presentation; combine print and visuals; use printing (e.g., for labels on a map) and cursive writing (e.g., for writing a report) appropriate to purpose; write legibly with appropriate speed and control; arrange and balance words and visuals as well as fonts (typefaces/print) in order to send a coherent and clear message to specific audiences.
CC8.5 Create and present a variety of visual and multimedia presentations including an illustrated report, a role play that ends with a tableau, a dramatization, presentation software, a newscast with adequate detail, clarity, and organization to explain (e.g., an important concept), to persuade (e.g., an opinion on an issue, a mini-debate), and to entertain (e.g., a humourous incident).
a Explore ideas and express understanding using various forms of representing (e.g., storyboarding, illustrating, role playing, e-mailing, preparing a concept map).
b Choose appropriate medium/media to fully explore and extend ideas.
c Choose appropriate technology (including digital) to represent understanding and enhance communication.
d Design graphic organizers to demonstrate understanding of ideas and information.
e Use visuals (e.g., data displays) and other techniques to portray key ideas.
f Consider ways to enhance clarity and impact of representations.
g Integrate various forms of representing (e.g., music, audio tape, graphic organizer, diagram) to express understanding and to enhance oral and written communications.
h Experiment with representing in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar forms (e.g., presentation software, dramatization, illustrated report).
i Use more than one type of media in a presentation.
CC8.6 Use oral language to interact purposefully, confidently, and respectfully in a variety of situations including one-to-one, small group, and large group discussions (expressing feelings and viewpoints and contributing to group harmony).
CC8.7 Use oral language to effectively express information and ideas of complexity in formal and informal situations (e.g., to debate a point, to participate in a meeting, to give a dramatic reading of a poem or play excerpt).
a Initiate conversation about a range of topics and respond appropriately when others initiate conversation.
b Engage in dialogue to understand the feelings and viewpoints of others and contribute to group harmony.
c Use language and tone to suit audience, purpose, and situation.
d Use gestures, facial expressions, and visual aids to enhance meaning of talk.
e Contribute ideas and information and pose questions in class discussion to gain understanding.
f Use talk to express and to share feelings, ideas, opinions, and responses in one-to-one, small group, and large group discussions.
g Give reasons for opinions and points of view.
h Summarize main ideas discussed and conclusions drawn.
i Create and deliver oral responses to texts.
j Deliver a focused, coherent oral presentation that includes an introduction, transitions, a logical body, and an effective conclusion as part of an individual project within a unit.
k Recite poems, sections of speeches, and dramatic soliloquies using voice modulation, tone, and gestures expressively to enhance the meaning.
l Give a dramatic reading of a poem or play excerpt and participate in Reader's Theatre.
m Experiment with speaking in formal situations (e.g., mini-debates, meetings).
CC8.8 Write to describe a landscape scene; to narrate a personal story or anecdote and a historical narrative; to explain and inform in a presentation of findings, a biography, a documented research report, and a résumé and covering letter; and to persuade in a mini-debate and a review.
CC8.9 Experiment with a variety of text forms (e.g., Reader's Theatre, role play, humourous instructions, an electronic presentation, a dramatization, a mini-debate) and techniques (e.g., imagery, music, graphics and statistics in a multimedia presentation).
a Demonstrate the ability to write effective, coherent multi-paragraph (minimum of 5 paragraphs) narrative, descriptive, expository, and persuasive essays of at least 500 to 800 words using appropriate before, during, and after strategies.
b Create narrative texts (e.g., story, anecdote, historical narrative) as follows:
establish a context, plot, and point of view
use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, tension, suspense)