220.127.116.11 develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of relationships, generalization through inductive reasoning, use of counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures, assess conjectures and justify conclusions, and plan and construct organized mathematical arguments;
18.104.22.168 demonstrate that they are reflecting on and monitoring their thinking to help clarify their understanding as they complete an investigation or solve a problem (e.g., by assessing the effectiveness of strategies and processes used, by proposing alternative approaches, by judging the reasonableness of results, by verifying solutions);
7.1.4 Selecting Tools and Computational Strategies
22.214.171.124 select and use a variety of concrete, visual, and electronic learning tools and appropriate computational strategies to investigate mathematical ideas and to solve problems;
126.96.36.199 make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical ideas to situations or phenomena drawn from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas, daily life, current events, art and culture, sports);
188.8.131.52 create a variety of representations of mathematical ideas (e.g., numeric, geometric, algebraic, graphical, pictorial; onscreen dynamic representations), connect and compare them, and select and apply the appropriate representations to solve problems;
184.108.40.206 demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of fractions and integers, and apply a variety of computational strategies to solve problems involving whole numbers and decimal numbers;
220.127.116.11 generate multiples and factors, using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., identify multiples on a hundreds chart; create rectangles on a geoboard) (Sample problem: List all the rectangles that have an area of 36 cm2 and have whole-number dimensions.);
18.104.22.168 select and justify the most appropriate representation of a quantity (i.e., fraction, decimal, percent) for a given context (e.g., "I would use a decimal for recording the length or mass of an object, and a fraction for part of an hour.");
22.214.171.124 represent perfect squares and square roots, using a variety of tools (e.g., geoboards, connecting cubes, grid paper);
126.96.36.199 explain the relationship between exponential notation and the measurement of area and volume (Sample problem: Explain why area is expressed in square units [units2] and volume is expressed in cubic units [units3].).
188.8.131.52 divide whole numbers by simple fractions and by decimal numbers to hundredths, using concrete materials (e.g., divide 3 by 1/2 using fraction strips; divide 4 by 0.8 using base ten materials and estimation);
184.108.40.206 use a variety of mental strategies to solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of fractions and decimals (e.g., use the commutative property: 3 x 2/5 x 1/3 = 3 x 1/3 x 2/5, which gives 1 x 2/5 = 2/5; use the distributive property: 16.8 ÷ 0.2 can be thought of as (16 + 0.8) ÷ 0.2 = 16 ÷ 0.2 + 0.8 ÷ 0.2, which gives 80 + 4 = 84);
220.127.116.11 solve problems involving the multiplication and division of decimal numbers to thousandths by one-digit whole numbers, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, drawings, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation, algorithms);
18.104.22.168 solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, drawings, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation, algorithms);
22.214.171.124 use estimation when solving problems involving operations with whole numbers, decimals, and percents, to help judge the reasonableness of a solution (Sample problem: A book costs $18.49. The salesperson tells you that the total price, including taxes, is $22.37. How can you tell if the total price is reasonable without using a calculator?);
126.96.36.199 solve problems that involve determining whole number percents, using a variety of tools (e.g., base ten materials, paper and pencil, calculators) (Sample problem: If there are 5 blue marbles in a bag of 20 marbles, what percent of the marbles are not blue?);
188.8.131.52 demonstrate an understanding of rate as a comparison, or ratio, of two measurements with different units (e.g., speed is a rate that compares distance to time and that can be expressed as kilometres per hour);
184.108.40.206 solve problems involving the calculation of unit rates (Sample problem: You go shopping and notice that 25 kg of Ryan's Famous Potatoes cost $12.95, and 10 kg of Gillian's Potatoes cost $5.78. Which is the better deal? Justify your answer.).
220.127.116.11 sketch different polygonal prisms that share the same volume (Sample problem: The Neuman Company is designing a new container for its marbles. The container must have a volume of 200 cm3. Sketch three possible containers, and explain which one you would recommend.);
18.104.22.168 solve problems that require conversion between metric units of measure (e.g., millimetres and centimetres, grams and kilograms, millilitres and litres) (Sample problem: At Andrew's Deli, cheese is on sale for $11.50 for one kilogram. How much would it cost to purchase 150 g of cheese?);
22.214.171.124 solve problems that require conversion between metric units of area (i.e., square centimetres, square metres) (Sample problem: What is the ratio of the number of square metres to the number of square centimetres for a given area? Use this ratio to convert 6.25 m2 to square centimetres.);
126.96.36.199 determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, dynamic geometry software) and strategies, the relationship for calculating the area of a trapezoid, and generalize to develop the formula [i.e., Area = (sum of lengths of parallel sides x height) ÷ 2] (Sample problem: Determine the relationship between the area of a parallelogram and the area of a trapezoid by composing a parallelogram from congruent trapezoids.);
188.8.131.52 estimate and calculate the area of composite two-dimensional shapes by decomposing into shapes with known area relationships (e.g., rectangle, parallelogram, triangle) (Sample problem: Decompose a pentagon into shapes with known area relationships to find the area of the pentagon.);
184.108.40.206 determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and strategies (e.g., decomposing right prisms; stacking congruent layers of concrete materials to form a right prism), the relationship between the height, the area of the base, and the volume of right prisms with simple polygonal bases (e.g., parallelograms, trapezoids), and generalize to develop the formula (i.e., Volume = area of base x height) (Sample problem: Decompose right prisms with simple polygonal bases into triangular prisms and rectangular prisms. For each prism, record the area of the base, the height, and the volume on a chart. Identify relationships.);
220.127.116.11 solve problems that involve the surface area and volume of right prisms and that require conversion between metric measures of capacity and volume (i.e., millilitres and cubic centimetres) (Sample problem: An aquarium has a base in the shape of a trapezoid. The aquarium is 75 cm high. The base is 50 cm long at the front, 75 cm long at the back, and 25 cm wide. Find the capacity of the aquarium.).
18.104.22.168 construct related lines (i.e., parallel; perpendicular; intersecting at 30º, 45º, and 60º), using angle properties and a variety of tools (e.g., compass and straight edge, protractor, dynamic geometry software) and strategies (e.g., paper folding);
22.214.171.124 sort and classify triangles and quadrilaterals by geometric properties related to symmetry, angles, and sides, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., geoboard, dynamic geometry software) and strategies (e.g., using charts, using Venn diagrams) (Sample problem: Investigate whether dilatations change the geometric properties of triangles and quadrilaterals.);
126.96.36.199 construct angle bisectors and perpendicular bisectors, using a variety of tools (e.g., Mira, dynamic geometry software, compass) and strategies (e.g., paper folding), and represent equal angles and equal lengths using mathematical notation;
188.8.131.52 identify, through investigation, the minimum side and angle information (i.e., side-side-side; side-angle-side; angle-sideangle) needed to describe a unique triangle (e.g., "I can draw many triangles if I'm only told the length of one side, but there's only one triangle I can draw if you tell me the lengths of all three sides.");
184.108.40.206 determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, concrete materials, geoboard), relationships among area, perimeter, corresponding side lengths, and corresponding angles of congruent shapes (Sample problem: Do you agree with the conjecture that triangles with the same area must be congruent? Justify your reasoning.);
220.127.116.11 distinguish between and compare similar shapes and congruent shapes, using a variety of tools (e.g., pattern blocks, grid paper, dynamic geometry software) and strategies (e.g., by showing that dilatations create similar shapes and that translations, rotations, and reflections generate congruent shapes) (Sample problem: A larger square can be composed from four congruent square pattern blocks. Identify another pattern block you can use to compose a larger shape that is similar to the shape of the block.).
18.104.22.168 identify, perform, and describe dilatations (i.e., enlargements and reductions), through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, geoboard, pattern blocks, grid paper);
22.214.171.124 create and analyse designs involving translations, reflections, dilatations, and/or simple rotations of two-dimensional shapes, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, Mira, drawings, dynamic geometry software) and strategies (e.g., paper folding) (Sample problem: Identify transformations that may be observed in architecture or in artwork [e.g., in the art of M.C. Escher].);
126.96.36.199 determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., pattern blocks, Polydrons, grid paper, tiling software, dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), polygons or combinations of polygons that tile a plane, and describe the transformation(s) involved.
7.5 Patterning and Algebra
7.5.1 Overall Expectations
188.8.131.52 represent linear growing patterns (where the terms are whole numbers) using concrete materials, graphs, and algebraic expressions;
184.108.40.206 represent linear growing patterns, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, paper and pencil, calculators, spreadsheets) and strategies (e.g., make a table of values using the term number and the term; plot the coordinates on a graph; write a pattern rule using words);
220.127.116.11 make predictions about linear growing patterns, through investigation with concrete materials (Sample problem: Investigate the surface area of towers made from a single column of connecting cubes, and predict the surface area of a tower that is 50 cubes high. Explain your reasoning.);
18.104.22.168 develop and represent the general term of a linear growing pattern, using algebraic expressions involving one operation (e.g., the general term for the sequence 4, 5, 6, 7, ... can be written algebraically as n + 3, where n represents the term number; the general term for the sequence 5, 10, 15, 20, ... can be written algebraically as 5n, where n represents the term number);
22.214.171.124 compare pattern rules that generate a pattern by adding or subtracting a constant, or multiplying or dividing by a constant, to get the next term (e.g., for 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ..., the pattern rule is "start at 1 and add 2 to each term to get the next term") with pattern rules that use the term number to describe the general term (e.g., for 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, ..., the pattern rule is "double the term number and subtract 1", which can be written algebraically as 2 x n - 1) (Sample problem: For the pattern 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,..., investigate and compare different ways of finding the 50th term.).
126.96.36.199 model real-life relationships involving constant rates where the initial condition starts at 0 (e.g., speed, heart rate, billing rate), through investigation using tables of values and graphs (Sample problem: Create a table of values and graph the relationship between distance and time for a car travelling at a constant speed of 40 km/h. At that speed, how far would the car travel in 3.5 h? How many hours would it take to travel 220 km?);
188.8.131.52 model real-life relationships involving constant rates (e.g., speed, heart rate, billing rate), using algebraic equations with variables to represent the changing quantities in the relationship (e.g., the equation p = 4t represents the relationship between the total number of people that can be seated (p) and the number of tables (t), given that each table can seat 4 people [4 people per table is the constant rate]);
184.108.40.206 translate phrases describing simple mathematical relationships into algebraic expressions (e.g., one more than three times a number can be written algebraically as 1 + 3x or 3x + 1), using concrete materials (e.g., algebra tiles, pattern blocks, counters);
220.127.116.11 make connections between evaluating algebraic expressions and determining the term in a pattern using the general term (e.g., for 3, 5, 7, 9, ..., the general term is the algebraic expression 2n + 1; evaluating this expression when n = 12 tells you that the 12th term is 2(12) + 1, which equals 25);
18.104.22.168 solve linear equations of the form ax = c or c = ax and ax + b = c or variations such as b + ax = c and c = bx + a (where a, b, and c are natural numbers) by modelling with concrete materials, by inspection, or by guess and check, with and without the aid of a calculator (e.g., "I solved x + 7 = 15 by using guess and check. First I tried 6 for x. Since I knew that 6 plus 7 equals 13 and 13, is less than 15, then I knew that x must be greater than 6.").
22.214.171.124 collect data by conducting a survey or an experiment to do with themselves, their environment, issues in their school or community, or content from another subject and record observations or measurements;
126.96.36.199 collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary data and secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such as E-Stat or Census At Schools) and display the data in charts, tables, and graphs (including relative frequency tables and circle graphs) that have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on the axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate increments) that suit the range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software);
188.8.131.52 read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g., survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary data (e.g., temperature data or community data in the newspaper, data from the Internet about populations) presented in charts, tables, and graphs (including relative frequency tables and circle graphs);
184.108.40.206 identify, through investigation, graphs that present data in misleading ways (e.g., line graphs that exaggerate change by starting the vertical axis at a point greater than zero);
220.127.116.11 determine, through investigation, the effect on a measure of central tendency (i.e., mean, median, and mode) of adding or removing a value or values (e.g., changing the value of an outlier may have a significant effect on the mean but no effect on the median) (Sample problem: Use a set of data whose distribution across its range looks symmetrical, and change some of the values so that the distribution no longer looks symmetrical. Does the change affect the median more than the mean? Explain your thinking.);
18.104.22.168 make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the analysis of charts, tables, and graphs (Sample problem: Use census information to predict whether Canada's population is likely to increase.).
22.214.171.124 research and report on real-world applications of probabilities expressed in fraction, decimal, and percent form (e.g., lotteries, batting averages, weather forecasts, elections);
126.96.36.199 make predictions about a population when given a probability (Sample problem: The probability that a fish caught in Lake Goodfish is a bass is 29%. Predict how many bass will be caught in a fishing derby there, if 500 fish are caught.);
188.8.131.52 represent in a variety of ways (e.g., tree diagrams, tables, models, systematic lists) all the possible outcomes of a probability experiment involving two independent events (i.e., one event does not affect the other event), and determine the theoretical probability of a specific outcome involving two independent events (Sample problem: What is the probability of rolling a 4 and spinning red, when you roll a number cube and spin a spinner that is equally divided into four different colours?);
184.108.40.206 perform a simple probability experiment involving two independent events, and compare the experimental probability with the theoretical probability of a specific outcome (Sample problem: Place 1 red counter and 1 blue counter in an opaque bag. Draw a counter, replace it, shake the bag, and draw again. Compare the theoretical and experimental probabilities of drawing a red counter 2 times in a row.).